Kırşehir became a parish in 1867, a district in 1869, and a sanjak in 1870, and the counties of Avanos, Keskin and Mecidiye (Çiçekdağı) were connected to Kırşehir. Avanos, Çiçekdağı, Hacıbektaş and Mucur districts were connected to Kırşehir, which became an independent governor in 1921 and a province in 1924. Kaman, which became a district in 1944, was connected to Kırşehir.
On 20 July 1954, with the law numbered 6429, the province of Nevşehir, Kırşehir, became a district of the province of Nevşehir, and the town of Çiçekdağı was connected to Yozgat, Kaman to Ankara, and Hacıbektaş, Mucur and Avanos to Nevşehir.
Kırşehir became a province again with the law numbered 7001 adopted on July 01, 1957, and the new districts of Çiçekdağı of Yozgat, Kaman of Ankara and Mucur of Nevşehir were connected.
THE NAME OF KIRSEHIR IN HISTORY
Kırşehir history begins to be remembered with the Hittites period. However, what the name of the province was at that time is not yet known. It is understood that the province was known as Aquae Saravenas (Akova-Saravena) for a while (2nd century BC). The city, which was previously called Makissos (Macissus), was re-established during the reign of Emperor Justinian I (527-568) and began to be called Justinianopolis.
The Turks called this city, which rises in the middle of the vast countryside, “the city of the countryside”. The rural city became “Kırşehir” in the colloquial language over time. Even today, the people living in some of its villages call this place the city of Kır. The name Kırşehir is Turkish. According to a rumor, it is said that when Timur came to Anatolia, he said “the city of the countryside” by showing the people living here who resisted him, then it changed to the city of countryside and took its current name.
THE HISTORY OF KIRŞEHİR
1 – Kırşehir in the Prehistoric Age (Bronze Period 3000-2000 BC ) In
the archaeological excavations carried out in and around Kırşehir, it is seen that Kırşehir was under the influence of the prehistoric era, especially the Bronze Age period. Five or six layers belonging to the Early Bronze Age were identified in the Hashöyük excavations in 1943. Stone and mudbrick foundations, black ceramic sherds, pots and bowls were found in these layers. These remains explain that the first Bronze Age period ( 3500-2000 BC ) was experienced in the region . New information can also be obtained from excavations in Hashöyük and the Kale in the city center, as well as excavations in the town of Çağırkan in Kaman.
The history of Kalehöyük, located near the town of Çağırkan .. 1750-600 BC. It is believed to date back to ancient times. At the end of the excavations, the 25-meter-high mound and the two large jars and other finds unearthed from it illuminate the prehistoric period of the region. The foundation of Kırşehir is that it is a stop and settlement in the middle of an old and busy main road that cuts Anatolia from the north-west and south-east in the early ages, it is on the important highways from Asia to Europe, and also in Cappadocia. There have been scientists looking for it to be close to the region.
2 – Hittite Period ( 1850-1200 BC )
It is certain that the Hittites period was widely lived in Kırşehir, since Kırşehir is within the Kızılırmak arc, which was the settlement of the Hittites. The excavations in Kale mound revealed that the lowest layer of the settlement area was the Hittite period. During these excavations, the remains and artifacts belonging to the early and late Hittite ages were unearthed. Wall foundations, which are thought to belong to official or palace buildings, as well as seals, jewelry, ceramic utensils and a cuneiform tablet fragment of Hittite diameter were also found.
It is 10 km. A stone block inscribed with the name of a Hittite prince was found in the north-east. It is thought that this stone block was a road sign and a road belonging to the Hittite period passed nearby.
An inscription known as “Mal Rock”, which is an important document for the history of the Hittite period, was found in Kırşehir. prof. Dr. H. Th. Bossert examined this inscription and explained that it was a road sign. The fact that the Mal rock inscription is a road sign and the fact that Kırşehir is on the road going south from Hattusa explains that the province was an important center during the Hittites period. Apart from this, another important artifact from the Hittite period is the Hittite Altar, known as the Ox Stone. This altar is made of basalt stone with a square prism body with a votive pool on it and two ox heads.
During the research at Merkez Kalehöyük in 1950, sherds belonging to the Hittite period were found. B.C. from the 1600s BC. This region, where the Hittites lived until 1200 BC. It was under the rule of the Phrygians until 675.
3 – Phrygian Period
After the Hittites weakened and lost their power, the Phrygians dominated the region. The Phrygians, who expanded their borders to the Kızılırmak and Salt Lake, BC. Since 1200, they have spread over a wide area, especially in Western and Central Anatolia.
When the Cimmerians defeated the Phrygians, the Lydians captured the western parts of Anatolia, but could not advance as far as Kırşehir. Kırşehir later BC. In the VIl.y., it came under the rule of the Medes and then the Persians.
4 – Persian Period (546-332 BC)
Median State, BC. It was destroyed by the Persians in 550 and then Anatolia came under Persian rule. Kırşehir was located in the west of the region that the Persians called Katpotukya (Cappadocia), that is, the “Land of Beautiful Horses”. Persians dominated the region through taxation. The local people, on the other hand, had to build various castles when they were crushed under heavy taxes. Kırşehir, on the other hand, did not make this effort. Because the land was very barren. Persians BC. They were defeated by the army of Alexander the Great in 334 and the Macedonians captured Kırşehir. BC as the king of Cappadocia after the uprising of the local people. In 332, Ariarates declared his independence.
5 – Period of the Kingdom of Cappadocia (333 BC – 18 AD)
Kingdom of Cappadocia (Kappadokia) BC. It was founded in 333. During this kingdom period, Kırşehir and its region experienced intense pressure. The periods of Commander Evmenes and Antipatos passed with wars because of their desire to seize the Cappadocia region. Ariarates is dead. Defeating the army of Alexander the Great II. Ariarates, on the other hand, managed to dominate the north of Kırşehir. Later, the lands of this region were flooded by Galatian (Celtic) communities from Central Europe. (220-163 BC) BC. 1st century In the end, Pontus King Mithradaset took these places under his control. During this period, the region was known as “Aquaesaravenea”.
B.C. It came under Roman rule in 85 BC. Cappadocia region BC. In 18 BC, it was connected to Rome by the Roman emperor Tiberius and Tiberius made it a province. Coins belonging to the kings of Cappadocia were found within the borders of Kırşehir.
6 – Roman Period (18-395 AD) After
Cappadocia became a Roman province, Christianity started to spread rapidly in the region. (3rd century) On the other hand, there was a great struggle between the idolatrous priests supported by the Roman Emperor and the Christians.
III in the Cappadocia region. and IV. For this reason, many underground cities built by Christians in the 19th century for shelter and protection emerged. Our city belongs to this period; There are ten underground cities such as the underground city of Mucur, the underground city of Murat with Dulkadirli, the underground city of Aşıkpaşa, the underground city of Kümbet. Kırşehir remained connected to Rome until 395. In some of the mounds in our city, sherds from the Roman period and coins belonging to this period were found.
7 – Byzantine Period (395-1071)
According to the historian Prokopios, who lived in Kırşehir, which was called Makissos in the Byzantine period and then Justinianapolis, in the same century; Justinianus reconstructed Kırşehir and made it a city. Due to the more vibrant economic life in Mazaka (Kayseri), the people of Kırşehir migrated here. In 605 AD, the Iranian Sassanid State invaded Kırşehir. Until 626, the region was shaken by Sassanid and Byzantine raids. In 647, the Damascus Governor of the Umayyad state, Muaviye, occupied Kayseri and Kırşehir.
Üçayak Church near Taburoğlu Village of Kırşehir center, church in Kaman Temirli, Rock churches in Mucur Aksaklı and Aflak villages, Derefakılı churches, Mucur Monastery and Monk Palace are architectural remains from the Byzantine period. In the vicinity of Kırşehir, oil lamps, jewellery, glazed blue and yellow ceramic objects belonging to the Byzantine period were found.
8 – Anatolian Seljuk Period (1071-1308)
The Turkish armies, which defeated Byzantium in 1071 and made Anatolia a Turkish homeland, expanded into Anatolia and established the Anatolian Seljuk State. In 1075, Kutalmışoğlu Süleyman Şah added Kırşehir to his lands. The Oghuz tribes, who came to Anatolia and Kırşehir, generally gave their tribe, oba and place names and personal names to the places where they settled. Today, the names of the Oghuz tribes “Çepni, Bayındır, Buğduz (Büğdüz), Kargın, Yazır, Kınık, Avşar”, as the names of towns and villages in Kırşehir, as well as oba, oymak and other Turkish names are kept alive.
During the Crusades, the Central Anatolian lands were lost. The Danishmends attached Kırşehir to them in 1120 and Kırşehir was called “Gülşehir” at that time. In 1174, Kılıçaslan reconnected Kırşehir to the Seljuk State. II. When Kılıçaslan divided the state’s lands among his eleven sons in accordance with the Turkish tradition in 1186, Kırşehir fell to Muhiddin Mesud. After his brother Rukneddin Aslan captured Konya, he also captured Ankara and Kırşehir (1203). In 1220, Alaaddin Keykubat put an end to the Kemah branch of the Mengüceks, and gave Kırşehir as a fief, as he delivered Şebinkarahisar to Muzaffer Muhammed, one of the Mengücek tribes, without shedding blood. Kırşehir was reconstructed in this period and turned into a cultural city.
During the Mongolian invasion, Kırşehir was the highland and winter quarters of the Mongol armies. After Kırşehir was given to Muzaffer Muhammed, upon the armament of the Turkmen tribes gathered around Baba Ishak, the Seljuk Sultan II. Gıyasettin Keyhüsrev called an army of 60,000 people for help. The Seljuk army defeated the Turkmens and their leader, Baba İshak, in the Malya plain of Kırşehir (1240).
After the Battle of Kösedağ in 1243, the Mongols definitely took control of Anatolia. Sultan II. Keyhüsrev sent Şemseddin İsvahhani to the Mongol sultan Batuhan as an ambassador, and he was appointed as the chief of staff with the Kırşehir governor because he made an agreement. IV. During the reign of Kılıçaslan, Nureddin, son of Caca, became the foreman of Kırşehir in 1262. The province became a very developed and flourishing province in his time. Nureddin Bey, son of Caca, gave importance to security and peace. He established the Cacabey Madrasa and complex in the province. Mamluk Sultan Baybars came to Anatolia in 1277 and defeated the Mongols in Elbistan, and a part of the Seljuk army joined the Mamluks during this war. Cacabey was also taken prisoner by the Egyptian Mamluk Sultan Baybars with his brother. When Baybars released the captives, Cacabey returned to Kırşehir.
Cacabey was very popular in Anatolia because he protected the Turkish people, had a high morality, and was a very personable person. He spoke pure Turkish and pioneered the spread of Turkish culture and works to Kırşehir and Anatolia. Cacabey, one of the other Turkish elders who lived in Anatolia in the 13th century, met with Haci Bektashi Veli, Mevlana Celalettini Rumi, and even received their praise.
The Cacabey Madrasa, founded by Nureddin Cacabey in 1272 in Kırşehir, has perpetuated his name. This madrasa was also an observatory. In Western Turkestan, the Kırşehir Cacabey observatory was equally important to Uluğ Bey’s observatory during the Seljuk period. Columns in the outer corners of this madrasah, which is used as a mosque today, are likened to space vehicles. Education in Cacabey madrasah was entirely in Turkish. While the Turkish language was in danger of melting into Persian culture, Cacabey kept Turkishness alive as a savior. For this reason, scholars and poets such as Ahi Evran, Aşıkpaşa, Hacı Bektaşi Veli, Ahmet Gülşehri wrote their works in pure Turkish. For this reason, Cacabey has a great importance in Turkish history. Cacabey was martyred in a battle with the Greeks (1301). His tomb is next to the Cacabey Madrasa.
II to the head of the Seljuks. During Mesut’s passing, Ilkhanid commander Baycu Noyan was acting independently in Anatolia. An army of 300,000 people defeated Baycu Noyan in the Malya plain. After that, Kırşehir and its surroundings were burned and destroyed. The country is divided into four; Kırşehir and its surroundings were left to Şerafettin Osman. Local people were overwhelmed by the weight of taxes during this period. In 1317, Timurtaş, the brother of the Ilkhanid ruler, established order in Anatolia and declared his independence in 1322. Timurtaş took refuge in the Mamluks when Anatolia mixed.
9 – Principalities Period
Kırşehir came under the rule of Eretna Principality in 1365. When the Samağar tribes living in Kırşehir region claimed that they attacked the pastures of the Turkmen in 1381, Kadı Burhanettin sent an army under the command of Emir Pir Ali and Seyidi Hüssam and punished the Turkmen. In 1389, Mürüvvet Bey captured Kırşehir and gave it to Kadı Burhanettin. In 1389, Yıldırım Beyazıd marched on Kadı Burhanettin and Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha, who formed an alliance against him. Since Kadi Burhanettin did not want to fight, he withdrew to the Kırşehir region. With the proposal of Kırşehir Governor Adil Shah, the city walls were repaired.
When Timur came to Anatolia in 1394, the sons of Karaman, who supported him, attacked Kırşehir and looted the city. Upon Timur’s return in 1396, Kadı Burhanettin attacked the Karaman sons and punished them. When Kadi Burhanettin was killed, the people of Kırşehir gave the city to Yıldırım Beyazıt. Kara Yusuf, the ruler of Karakoyunlu, who took shelter in Beyazıt at this time, looted Kırşehir and its surroundings when he was worried that he would be handed over to Timur. Kırşehir was given to the sons of Karaman after Timur defeated Yıldırım in the Battle of Ankara in 1402.
While the Interregnum (1402-1413) was going on in Anatolia, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey asked for help from Çelebi Mehmet. They met at the Cemele castle in the current town of Çayağzı. Kırşehir, which was attacked by Karamanoğulları and Dulkadiroğulları, was looted and lost its former vitality in time, II. During the Murat period (1402-1451), it was firmly attached to the Ottomans.
10 – Ottoman Period
After the definitive establishment of Ottoman domination in Anatolia, that is, after Fatih Sultan Mehmet provided Anatolian Turkish unity, significant events did not occur in Kırşehir until the end of the 19th century, except for the Celali revolts,
The Ahi community played a major role in the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, and the effects of Hacı Bektaş Veli were seen during the establishment of the regular army, namely the Janissary Corps. Janissaries accepted Hacı Bektaş as “Pir”. In Katip Çelebi’s Travel Book; It is written that Kırşehir was founded in a field with a nice weather and that it had a castle on it.
In 1527, Kalender Çelebi, one of the grandchildren of Hacı Bektaşi Veli, rebelled in the Ankara-Kayseri region. When this uprising grew, Suleiman the Magnificent sent an army under the command of Grand Vizier İbrahim Pasha to the Kırşehir region in 1528.
By the 1560s, there was another intense turmoil in Anatolia. He gave an order to Memiş Bey, the ruler of Kırşehir, to punish the bandits named Hakibe Sührap, who forcibly robbed the people. However, the situation is understood from the letters sent by the Kırşehir kadı to Istanbul, where taxes were collected from the people by force. In 1580, it was seen that some madrasah students revolted in Kırşehir. The edict issued to punish these students came in handy for some, and some officials, who took advantage of this, began to persecute the people. The men of Şehzade Mehmet, the governor of Egypt, who were sent to suppress this uprising in 1584, formed a gang and raided the villages in Kırşehir, killing innocent people and confiscating their goods and money.
1604-1605In , a bandit named Hızır invaded and plundered the Niğde and Kırşehir sanjaks with a force of 500-600 people. Bıyık Ali, who took his place after his murder, continued his persecution and oppression in the region until Kuyucu Murat Pasha’s expedition to suppress the Celali revolts. Meymun, who is the brother of Tavıl Ahmet Pasha, who is also one of the famous Celali, plundered Kırşehir and its surroundings with a force of 7.000 people gathered around him. Kuyucu Ahmet Pasha defeated and killed Maymun and his men (1607).
The weakening of the state authority over time has revealed the “notables”. Ayanlar was also influential in Kırşehir and its surroundings. Capanoğulları were also influential in Kırşehir. The state, on the other hand, had to ask the notables for help in maintaining the country’s order and recruiting soldiers. At the end of 1797, when Paspanoğlu Osman, the notable of Vidin, revolted, the state asked for help from Çapanoğlu Süleyman Bey. He also recruited soldiers from Kırşehir and its surroundings. In 1799, during the preparations to expel the French from Egypt, Capanoğlu Süleyman Bey sent soldiers to the Ottoman-Russian war that started in 1866. Mahmut gave Süleyman Bey the authority of Şarkikarahisar sanjak in 1808, Kayseri sanjak trusteeship in 1810, and Kırşehir sanjak trusteeship in 1811.
Kırşehir 19th century. It has become a small stop on trade routes that lost its importance in the middle of nowhere. At this time its population is about 3500. Towards the end of the century, the population of the city, which was the center of the sanjak of Ankara province, is shown as 8,462. Kırşehir district is the central district. 185 villages are connected to Kırşehir. During this period, there were 4 madrasahs, 1 high school, 1 secondary school, 2 iptidaiye, 25 primary schools and 1 Armenian school in neighborhoods and villages. There are 1603 houses, 10 inns, 600 shops, 6 cafes, 25 mosques, 19 small mosques, 1 church, 1 barracks, 1 warehouse, 1 arsenal. The high school was built in 1889 and opened for education, and it is stated that it underwent a renovation in 1903.
In the early periods of the Ottoman Empire, Kırşehir was a sanjak of the province of Karaman. It became a sanjak in 1867. It is seen that Avanos, Keskin and Çiçekdağı districts were connected to Kırşehir, which was a sanjak of Ankara in 1902.
Kırşehir faced a great famine in 1874. Basiret Newspaper, published in Istanbul on May 15, 1874, based on the letters sent from Kırşehir; He writes that the villager had to eat famine-dead animals, bark and weeds.
11 – Kırşehir in the Recent Period Kırşehir
became an independent governor in 1921. It became the city center during the Republican period. to Kırşehir in 1924; Avanos, Çiçekdağı, Hacıbektaş and Mucur are connected. When Kaman became a district in 1944, the number of districts in Kırşehir became five.
The law dated 20 July 1954 and numbered 6429 made Nevşehir a province and Kırşehir a district affiliated to it. Çiçekdağı is connected to Yozgat, Kaman to Ankara, Hacıbektaş, Avanos and Mucur to Nevşehir. Kırşehir became a province again with the law numbered 7001 enacted on 1 July 1957. In this new arrangement, Çiçekdağı, Kaman and Mucur were connected to Kırşehir. Hacibektas and Avanos are included in Nevşehir. Akpınar (1987), Akçakent (1990), Boztepe (1990) became the new districts of Kırşehir. Currently, there are seven districts of Kırşehir.
ARRIVAL AND ACTIVITIES OF MUSTAFA KEMAL PASHA AND REPRESENTATIVE COMMITTEE
1 – Situation in Kırşehir and Its Region Before Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s Arrival in Kırşehir
After the Mondros Armistice Agreement, it is seen that the people in the Kırşehir region fell into a general pessimism, as in the rest of the country, and they thought that the agreement with such harsh conditions would bring greater dangers in the future, and therefore sought some remedies and ways out in order to cope with the approaching bad days. The people of Kırşehir accelerated the activities of associations and societies, started the National Struggle and preparatory works, and showed the necessary reaction against the rebels that emerged around it, as well as opposing the submissive understanding of the Istanbul Government.
The people of Kırşehir, the founder of the new Turkish Republic, M. Kemal Pasha, all his activities on the way to the National Struggle since his arrival in Samsun, in a period when all kinds of communication and transportation equipment were extremely limited, all their work as closely as possible. was following. As a matter of fact, we can understand that the people of Kırşehir had a conscious understanding of the situation in the country from the warm interest and devotion they showed during the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee.
After the Sivas Congress of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee (September 04-11, 1919), the planning of the route to be followed to reach Ankara was made in advance by Hüsrev Bey (Berlin Ambassador) in Sivas. Accommodation places envisaged in this plan were not only the places that had to be visited for travel purposes, but were also a necessity of a plan that Mustafa Kemal Pasha considered for the realization of the National Struggle. When the general program prepared by Hüsrev Bey for the Ankara trip was presented to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, he stated that it was compulsory to go from Mucur to Hacıbektaş, but that this situation should be kept secret until he reached Mucur.
Because a very important person for Mustafa Kemal Pasha lived in Hacibektas and he had turned his elbow to Istanbul. This power that emerged spontaneously right next to the Ankara Castle was, of course, worth seeing and being interested in. Undoubtedly, the military and political environment was also taken into account while making this plan. It is a requirement of Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s political and military plan that Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee should turn to Hacibektas, which is not on the Ankara road. The fact that they did not go directly to Hacıbektaş after Kayseri, but came back to Mucur after coming back, is because there was no road for cars going directly to Hacıbektaş at that time.
As it is known, following the Sivas-Ankara road is not a coincidence. Because M. Kemal Pasha always planned the things he would do throughout his life and did whatever it took to reach the goal. As a matter of fact, it is possible that he took the following points into consideration while choosing this path. First; Sivas-Ankara road is in the middle and central position of Anatolia. The possibility of occupying this road, which is suitable for regularly producing the resources that may be needed for the National Struggle, is geographically very difficult. Secondly; Defense-i Law Societies and associations established in their settled units in this region work very effectively.
Confirming the above views, Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) Pasha states the following for the national activities in this region: I was glad to see the excitement.” As a requirement of the Turkish state tradition, although the Istanbul Government tried to use the loyalty and love for the sultan and the caliph, which was ingrained in the personality of the local people, for their own benefit through the Governorship of Ankara, it could not be successful thanks to the strong intuition of the local people and their high national consciousness. In the letter sent by the Istanbul Government to the 12th Corps Command in Konya on 16.09.1335 (1919);
Thus, Ali Fuat Pasha confirms the activities of the Istanbul Government in this region with the following words: “A few months ago, the intrigues that Ankara Governor Muhittin Pasha wanted to plot here were completely in vain, and the people of Kırşehir proved their loyalty to the national cause.”
In summary, the interest and support shown to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the Representative Committee during the five days they spent in Kırşehir between 21-26 December 1919 clearly reveals the positive approach and sensitivity of the people of Kırşehir towards the National Struggle.
2 – National Associations and Societies Established in Kırşehir and Its Districts Before the National Struggle
Lütfi Müfit Bey, who worked actively in associations and societies established in Kırşehir during the years of the National Struggle, had been in Damascus with Mustafa Kemal Pasha before and Mustafa Kemal Pasha founded the “Homeland and Freedom Society” here against the oppressive rule of Abdulhamit II. has supported.
Lütfi Müfit Bey had very cordial relations with M. Kemal Pasha in Damascus and they immortalized their sincerity with a picture they took together. This sincerity continued for many years and after the adoption of the surname law, the surname “Identical” was given to Lüfti Müfit Bey by M. Kemal Pasha himself.
We see that teachers have an important place among the influential people in Kırşehir during the preparation period for the National Struggle. Teacher Servet Fikret Hanım, Ömer Aydın (Geç) Bey, Teacher Cevat Hakkı Tarım Bey, Habip Arıöz and Tayyip Bey, who attended the ceremony with his family during the welcome of M. Kemal Pasha in Mucur, were distinguished teachers who played an important role in the formation of national unity and solidarity. are seen as individuals. As a matter of fact, these patriotic people took active roles in the activities of associations and societies in Kırşehir.
a) Kirsehir Youth Association
Soldiers and officers who were demobilized in accordance with the provisions of the Armistice of Mudros signed on October 30, 1918, returned to their regions, but they did not give up the National Struggle and joined the Kuva-i Milliye movement that started in the occupied regions. Young people in places like Kırşehir, where there is no occupation yet, wanted to do social and political work with the influence of feelings such as national sovereignty and independence. Here, the youth from Kırşehir, who was discharged and returned to Kırşehir and never accepted defeat, immediately started to work by establishing an association called “Kırşehir Youth Association” with a committee of ten people in February 1918. The establishment of such an association in Kırşehir after the First World War and its immediate start to work, when Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Kırşehir, during his visits to the association building, It caused the managers of the association to be appreciated and appreciated by Mustafa Kemal Pasha. As a matter of fact, Mustafa Kemal Pasha documented these appreciations by signing the association’s diary with his own handwriting.
The directors of Kırşehir Youth Association are Reis Garipoğlu Reşat (Özdeş), Secretary General Mustafa Hilmi (Nural), Accountant Member Mehmet Fevzi (Saçak), Member Cevat Hakkı Tarım, Member Mehmet Tayyip (İhtiyaroğlu), forest officer Katıcıoğlu Ahmet Bey, taxpayer It consisted of M. Sıtkı (Doğu) Bey, the treasurer of the department, and four other people. This association; He was posting the news, telegrams and newspapers on the attack and other political developments that had started since the occupation of Izmir by the Greeks (15 May 1919) in the building of the association, and tried to enlighten the public by informing them. The members of the association expressed their opinions both among themselves and against the public as follows: “The land you step on is yours, own it. This land is our land in all Anatolia and Rumelia. There is no surrender to the enemy, there is death for the sake of independence”. Society, It had become a center where the people frequently visited to get news about the general situation of the country. This association played an important role in the development of national feelings on the people of Kırşehir, in the issue of homeland and independence, and in the support of the people of Kırşehir to the National Struggle with their loyalty to Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
b) Kırşehir Defense-i Law Society
Kırşehir Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti was established under the chairmanship of Müftü Halil (Gürbüz). This society, headed by Reis Halil (Gürbüz) Bey, first started to carry out its activities in the Madrasah building, then continued in the high school building in Kale. The head of the branch of this society was Haydar Bey, and the society consisted of members such as Ömer Aydın (Young), Mehmet Ağa, Nurullah Efendi, Hacı Nuri Efendi, Molla Mustafa (Akça), Hacı Hidayet Efendi. The Society gave full support to the national struggle in Kırşehir and its region and carried out an extremely effective work in its own region. The members of the Society made every effort during the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee to Kırşehir and ensured that the leadership of the National Struggle was hosted in the most appropriate way according to the conditions of that day. In addition, It enabled the collection of materials and equipment needed during the War of Independence and the successful execution of civil and military affairs in an environment where there was no state order. In addition, they prevented Ankara Governor Muhittin Pasha, who was a pro-Istanbul government, from intervening in Kırşehir and kept the national struggle consciousness of the people alive.
c) The Defendant Defense of the Law Society
He was honored with “Honorary Citizenship” first in Mucur and then in Sungurlu, where he served. It is also stated that he was awarded the “Red Striped Medal of Independence” for his outstanding efforts and work in the War of Independence.
In addition to the Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti in Mucur, a protest telegram sent from Mucur upon the occupation of İzmir mentions another society with the name of “Mucur Cemiyet-i İslamiye Milli Heyeti”, but there is no other source regarding the existence of such a society. not found.
d) Kaman Defense of Rights Society
The president of this society is Hacı Ali Bektaş Ağa, known locally as Bektaş Son Ali. This society carried out the work of welcoming Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee in Kaman on 25 December 1919, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was a guest at the house of the head of the society, Hacı Ali Bektaş Ağa that night.
Kaman Defense of Rights Society also supported the national struggle that started in Anatolia and helped the people of Kaman to develop and consolidate the feelings of national unity and solidarity.
e) National Activities in Çiçekdağı District
It is understood from the fact that there is a national organization in Çiçekdağı district and that the people of Çiçekdağı “We are determined to work continuously and for the sake of our national happiness until there is only one person left in our country and the country turns into ruins” in the newspaper of will-i Milliye. Çiçekdağı Mufti Hayrullah Alp Efendi was honored by being congratulated by a telegram sent by Mustafa Kemal Pasha for his outstanding efforts to ensure the peace and security of the region against the Çapanoğlu revolt, which started in Yozgat and its surroundings and spread to the Mecidiye (Çiçekdağ) border. Meanwhile, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey asked Hayrullah Bey to ensure the security of the town by recruiting soldiers and entrusted Mecidiye to him.
Against this telegram of Çiçekdağı Mayor Necip Bey, in the telegram dated 16/17.06.1336 (1920) sent with the signature of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Chief of the General Staff Ismet Pasha: “Mecidiye Mayor Necip and Mufti To Hayrullah Efendiler:
“We thank you for your good fortune and fortitude and for your perseverance and effort in protecting the country. Record enough of the amount of trust in the vehicle with the gendarme and level it by making a loan from the property chest or from a place. It is the state’s debt. It will be leveled immediately.
Act as one of you by proxy in the district governorship. It will be seen in a day or two how drastically the master you are oppressed has been reconciled, and the power and honor of those who act with perfect fortitude, like the elders of Mecidiye, will be understood. The order was given to keep the communication with the telegraph wire and inform the province every six hours.
As can be understood from the text of the telegram, by asking the Mufti of Çiçekdağı Hayrullah Bey to also act as the deputy district governor, he was authorized to support the National Struggle on behalf of Çiçekdağı town.
On June 16, 1920, the Chief of General Staff Colonel İsmet (İnönü), who was in Çerkeş at that time, Colonel Refet (Bele) Bey, said that the size of the Çapanoğlu revolt that started in Yozgat and its region and that it could spread to Çankırı and Çorum if necessary precautions were not taken. In a telegram he wrote to : “After Yozgat falls, it is likely that Çorum and Çankırı will also be in danger. If these also fall, the turmoil will be too wide. With the force gathered in Çerkeş, it is necessary to move to Çankırı. Let me know when you will move. Ethem forces will be able to gather in Ankara on the evening of 18 June” and gives enlightening information about the dimensions of the rebellion.
Regarding the rebellion in Yozgat, Kırşehir Deputy Rıza Bey and Trabzon Deputy Hüsrev (Gerede) Bey sent a joint telegram to the Parliament on 17 June 1920: “The Yozgat uprising was caused by the misconduct of Ankara Governor Yahya Galip Bey, perhaps because of the mischief he organized.” They expressed their opinions and thoughts on this issue.
In the telegram written by Chief of General Staff İsmet (İnönü) Bey to Çerkez Ethem Bey regarding the suppression of the Çapanoğlu revolt in Yozgat: “Akdağ Mine, Yozgat, Alaca rebels; Yenihan, Tokat, Mecitözü, Çorum, Sungurlu, Keskin and Mecidiye are in our hands. Thus, it is understood that the rebels led by Çapanoğlu Celal Bey could not find supporters in Kırşehir and were stopped within the borders of Çiçekdağı. Meanwhile, in the letter sent by Çapanoğlu Celal Bey to Kılıç Ali Bey, who came to the region to suppress the rebellion; “The aim of the caliph’s army is to capture Mustafa Kemal and his seven friends. We are in contact and in communication with Kırşehir Deputy M. Rıza Bey. Although he used an expression such as “We will march to Ankara via Kırşehir”, the accuracy of this statement is doubtful. Because, Kırşehir Deputy Rıza Bey, TB.MM
As can be seen, the people of Çiçekdağı; With his Mufti (Deputy District Governor) and Mayor, he resisted the rebellion and rebels, sided with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and failed by disrupting the plans of Çapanoğlu, who wanted to march to Ankara via Kırşehir, thus playing an important role in the victory of the national struggle.
3 – Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee In Kırşehir,
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee wanted to make a place in the west a city center in order to be closer to the political events. For this reason, the issue was discussed at the “Commanders Meeting” in Sivas between 16-29 November, Ankara, Konya, Eskişehir were emphasized, and Ankara, which is connected to Istanbul by a railway and has a strong national organization, was accepted as the most suitable city for this issue. has been made.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee set off on 18 December 1919 with a convoy of three cars, amid the enthusiastic displays of affection of the people of Sivas, consisting of thousands of horsemen, carriages and pedestrians, gathered in front of Sivas High School after the Sivas Congress (04-11 September 1919). The enthusiastic farewell of the delegation from Sivas by women from Sivas, led by the “Anatolian Women’s Defense of the Vatan Society”, is a vivid indication of the Anatolian people’s desire and will to live independently.
It is seen that this core cadre, known as the Representation Committee, which set out with the determination and decision to establish the new Republic of Turkey, acted with extremely limited means. together with Mustafa Kemal Pasha; Rauf Bey, guests Alfred Rüstem Bey, Şeyh Fevzi Efendi, Hakkı Behiç, Auxiliary Muzaffer and Cevat Abbas, Captain Bedri Bey, General Clerk Hüsrev Bey (Berlin Ambassador) Doctor Refik (Saydam), Mazhar Müfit (Kansu) Beys has set out with three cars, two of which are solid tires. The members of the delegation could only buy twenty eggs, an okka (1283 gr.) of cheese and ten breads with their current money. They also borrowed less than a thousand liras needed for the trip from the Sivas branch of the Ottoman Bank.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee, on the way to Sivas-Kayseri, having suffered great difficulties, reached Kayseri on Friday, 19 December 1919 in the evening. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was a guest for two nights in the house of imam zade Reşit Ağa in Kayseri, met with the notables of Kayseri during his stay in the city and was pleased that the people of Kayseri were Kuva-i Milliyeci, self-sacrificing and patriotic people and that they were ready to provide all kinds of support for the National Struggle. has seen.
Departing from Kayseri around 9.00 on Sunday, December 21st, the delegation reached Himmetdede Village (now the district) at noon and after a short break, set off to reach Mucur.
a) Arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee to Mucur
XX. Corps Commander Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) Pasha, after meeting with Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Amasya, followed the Corum-Yozgat-Mucur-Kırşehir road while returning to Ankara, the center of the corps. He stated that they should greet and support Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee by saying “Oppose the pashas who will come in three days”. After all, Mucur Mayor Derviş Dündar Bey sent a telegram to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, and they were asked to visit Mucur while they were passing through Ankara. Mustafa Kemal Pasha replied to this invitation as follows: “I will stop by when I pass by, thank you for your interest”. has given.
The Representation Committee with Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who set off from Kayseri-Himmetdede, was guided by the Kayseri horsemen up to the border of the Topaklı Village (now the district) located between Himmetdede and Mucur, and by the Kirşehir horsemen after Topaklı. The delegation, which was able to progress with difficulty on the road completely muddy due to the intermittent snow and rain, was only able to arrive in Mucur on Sunday, 21 December at 20.30.
Mucur District Governor Cevat Bey could not make any preparations because he thought that the delegation would go to Hacibektas after Yenice Farm. The delegation had a general meeting with the Mucur notables, who were invited to the district governor’s office despite the road fatigue, about the situation in the country. Mustafa Kemal Pasha spent the night in the district governor’s office, and the members of the delegation spent the night in the houses of Mucur notables. Departing to Hacıbektaş in two cars in the morning, the delegation was met by the people of Hacıbektaş at the Yenice Farm near Hacıbektaş in the afternoon.
After meeting with Çelebi Cemalettin Efendi, the leader of the Anatolian Alevis in Hacıbektaş, and Niyazi Salih Baba, Deputy of Hacıbektaş Dede Post, the delegation returned to Mucur on Tuesday, December 23, 1919, this time the horsemen who came from Kırşehir with the Mucur people, at the Kurugöl Village (now municipality) location. has met. Mucur District Governor and Head of Defense of Rights Association Cevat (Akın) Bey was aware of the decisions of the Sivas Congress, and he knew that the delegation that set off from Sivas would also stop by Mucur. As a matter of fact, an enthusiastic ceremony was held for Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his delegation, who were returning from Hacıbektaş to Mucur. About 150 armed Mucur horsemen, who came to participate in this ceremony, went to Kurugöl Village with the people, accompanied by drums and zurna, and waited for the delegation for more than two hours under the drizzle. Mucur Mayor Derviş Ağa, He informed that the delegation was coming. Seeing the enthusiastic crowd coming from Kırşehir and Mucur to greet them, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation got out of the cars and greeted the people. District Governor Cevat Bey said “Welcome” to the members of the delegation on behalf of his district, and when he came to Mucur during this time, there were girls and boys primary school students and teachers between the current Ziraat Bank and the Government Building. The students were carrying a banner with the words “His Excellency Mustafa Kemal Pasha Welcome” written in old letters. Here, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said to the students and the crowd: “I have never come across such a warm welcome before. Thank you mucurlus. The country is lost. Together we will drive our enemies out of our holy land. Our password is per gun”.
These flowers that we are ready to present, Its product
Gulistan is a homeland, what a happiness, The
efforts we have given to its devshirme,
Please accept it, sir, act grace.
Here is this rûzu with great pride, he
entered Gülistane and gave a damn
. We picked a few flowers with our innocence in Desti.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who thanked the little girl student for the poem he recited and the flower he presented, made a speech expressing his satisfaction, addressing the people of Mucur for the warm interest he received.
During the welcome, the Headmistress of the School, Servet Fikret Hanım, made a speech addressing Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the Representative Committee, expressing their satisfaction with their arrival in Mucur. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Wealth gave Fikret Ms. rainy and Wealth Fikret lady following commendation Amay After you specify a muddy from the day students and bringing his happiness because of the sincerity of speech to be made:
“Mucur Samplers-i Nezahet Başmualli the Wealth Fikret the lady,
made on behalf of our delegation As we are personally grateful for the courtesy of the ceremony that will honor the future person, we are personally grateful for the courtesy that we participated in… I wish you success in your work, which congratulates Secayi, sir.
Anatolia and Rumelia Defense of Rights Society
on behalf of the Representative Committee of
Mustafa Kemal Pasha had met frequently calling him remain firm in Mucur students and has been concerned with them. After these meetings, he stated his feelings and thoughts by saying: “I have never seen the respect I see in this small town and the intelligence I see in children.”
After this enthusiastic welcoming ceremony, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee came to the District Governor’s Office with the people, and Mucur Mufti İsmail Hakkı Efendi read a long prayer and wished success from God.
After Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Mucur Mayor Nuri Bey and members of the municipal council, Hacı Süleyman Bey, Tevfik Bey, Hacı Emin Bey, Derviş Mehmet Bey and Hayri Efendi came to the district governor’s office and said “Welcome” on behalf of the people of Mucur. Here, Mustafa Kemal Pasha accepted the people who wanted to meet, listened to their wishes, made statements about the situation in our country, and told about the disasters that await our country and our nation. Having had lunch at the District Governor’s Office, the delegation then answered the questions of Mucur notables about the current situation in the country. During these meetings, Mehmet Hayri Efendi, one of the Mucur people, said: “His Excellency, there is talk of a fekki-i contact with Istanbul. What’s the point of it?” Mustafa Kemal Pasha to the question he asked: He replied, “To take back the places we lost with the armistice”. In the meantime, a soldier who participated in the Dardanelles Wars, one of those who came to Mucur for weekly shopping from the surrounding villages on the occasion of Mucur’s bazaar, recognizing Mustafa Kemal Pasha from the front, saluting him and kissing his hand, Mustafa Kemal Pasha; The fact that he was sincerely interested in this Çanakkale Veteran about his unity, which fronts he was on, his village, his livelihood and his family caused the people there to be excited and emotional moments were experienced. This event caused Mustafa Kemal Pasha to be exalted in the eyes of the people of Mucur, and caused the people to fully trust the Representation Committee and be attached to them with sincere feelings. Meanwhile, a soldier who participated in the Dardanelles Wars, one of those who came to Mucur for weekly shopping from the surrounding villages on the occasion of Mucur’s bazaar, recognizing Mustafa Kemal Pasha from the front, saluting him and kissing his hand, Mustafa Kemal Pasha; The fact that he was sincerely interested in this Çanakkale Veteran about his unity, which fronts he was on, his village, his livelihood and his family caused the people there to be excited and emotional moments were experienced. This event caused Mustafa Kemal Pasha to be exalted in the eyes of the people of Mucur, and caused the people to fully trust the Representation Committee and be attached to them with sincere feelings. In the meantime, a soldier who participated in the Dardanelles Wars, one of those who came to Mucur for weekly shopping from the surrounding villages on the occasion of Mucur’s bazaar, recognizing Mustafa Kemal Pasha from the front, saluting him and kissing his hand, Mustafa Kemal Pasha; The fact that he was sincerely interested in this Çanakkale Veteran about his unity, which fronts he was on, his village, his livelihood and his family caused the people there to be excited and emotional moments were experienced. This event caused Mustafa Kemal Pasha to be exalted in the eyes of the people of Mucur, and caused the people to fully trust the Representation Committee and be attached to them with sincere feelings. The fact that he was sincerely interested in this Çanakkale Veteran about his unity, which fronts he was on, his village, his livelihood and his family caused the people there to be excited and emotional moments were experienced. This event led to the elevation of Mustafa Kemal Pasha in the eyes of the Mucur people, and the people’s full trust in the Representation Committee and their sincere feelings. The fact that he was sincerely interested in this Çanakkale Veteran about his unity, which fronts he was on, his village, his livelihood and his family caused the people there to be excited and emotional moments were experienced. This event led to the elevation of Mustafa Kemal Pasha in the eyes of the Mucur people, and the people’s full trust in the Representation Committee and their sincere feelings.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee, who came to Mucur at 20.30 on Sunday evening, 21 December 1919, spent the night in Mucur and moved to Hacıbektaş by two cars on Monday morning, 22 December 1919.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee, who spent the night of Tuesday, December 23, 1919 in Mucur, departed for Kırşehir on the morning of Wednesday, December 24, 1919.
Welcoming of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee in Kırşehir Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee, who departed from Mucur to arrive in Kırşehir on the morning of Wednesday, December 24, 1919, in a rainy weather, were enthusiastically met by the Kırşehir horsemen in the Gölhisar region at the city entrance. has been met.
Some of the horsemen from Kırşehir, who had previously heard that Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee were coming to Kırşehir, went as far as Topraklı, and even some sensitive Kırşehir residents who were worried about the bad situation in the country went to Mucur and Hacıbektaş and met with Mustafa Kemal Pasha and exchanged ideas. they were found.
In Kırşehir, as in every corner of the country, conversations were held about the current situation, new developments were followed with great interest, and the decisions taken at the Sivas Congress were conveyed to the smallest settlements. The people of Kırşehir already knew Mustafa Kemal Pasha with the Sivas Congress and had confidence in him. As soon as it was heard that the Congress Committee was coming to Kırşehir, preparations were immediately started in the city. Members of Kırşehir Youth Association, which has been working with the Kırşehir Defense-i Law Society for a long time and defending the same views as Mustafa Kemal Pasha, welcomed this news with great joy and excitement.
As soon as Ali Hikmet Bey, the accountant, who was working as a deputy governor in Kırşehir at this time, heard that Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee would come to Kırşehir, M. Sıtkı (popularly known as Hacı Bey), who was working as a cashier in the tax office, agreed with Doğu. Together they reviewed the welcome and farewell program for the last time. This news spread very quickly among official institutions and the civilian population. Despite the adverse weather conditions, everyone took action with the idea of doing something for the welcoming ceremony. M. Sıtkı (East) Bey describes the preparations for the welcoming ceremony as follows:
At that time, Ali Hikmet Bey was the deputy governor of Kırşehir, and I was the cashier in the tax office. At the same time, I was a member of the Kırşehir Youth Association Board of Directors. Ali Hikmet, Deputy Governor, came to my room in the cashier section, closed the door tightly, and after sitting down with his chair near my desk: “Hacı, congress members will pass here on their way to Ankara. It is necessary to prepare a welcome program suitable for their honor. You prepare a program accordingly. He also said to contact the Youth Association immediately.” Upon this order, M. Sıtkı (East) Bey showed the program he had prepared to Ali Hikmet Bey and got his approval. Deputy Governor A. Hikmet Bey, together with Mufti Halil Efendi, Head of Defense of Law Society, Mustafa Nural Bey from Kırşehir Youth Association,
As soon as the people of Kırşehir learned that Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee had departed from Mucur, they set out towards Mucur, with the horsemen at the forefront. The streets of Yenice Neighborhood, located on the road where Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee will enter Kırşehir, were filled by the people of Kırşehir. The people of Kırşehir saw bright days in the future in the person of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. With this hope, the majority of the people gathered around Kılıçlı Bridge.
When the horsemen who went to greet Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends saw the crowd waiting around the Kılıçlı Bridge on the Koşuyolu near the current bus terminal, they came waving their caps. On the Kılıçlı Bridge, while about one hundred and fifty horsemen, with their tails knotted, were playing javelin around the cars carrying the delegation, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends got out of the cars and greeted the people. As soon as Mustafa Kemal Pasha got down from the car, “takbir” was brought and the victims were sacrificed.
Welcoming Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee, Deputy Governor Ali Hikmet Bey introduced the notables of Kırşehir and the members of the Youth Association to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after saying “Welcome, His Excellency Pasha, dear guests” to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the delegation. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, after expressing his satisfaction, watched the horsemen playing javelin in the field by the road for a short time and then thanked Ali Hikmet Bey for the interest shown and the preparations made.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who walked for a while with the people from the Kılıçlı Bridge, was wearing a cap on his head and a military dress.
For Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee, sacrifices were made about every two hundred meters on the way they passed. When the delegation arrived in front of the current Gazi Primary School, it was greeted with applause by the students under the direction of the school principal, Ömer Aydın Bey. In the face of this warm interest, Mustafa Kemal Pasha got out of the car and came to the Middle School Principal Ömer Aydın Bey. Middle School Principal Ömer Aydın Bey presented Mustafa Kemal Pasha to his students; “He is one of our national heroes, who gave their lives to expel the enemy who polluted our homeland with his boots, and entered the most glorious pages of history. By introducing them to you, I teach another lesson. Those who work for the dormitory, generations forget “Does it?” Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on the other hand, thanked these words and continued on his way.
After the ceremony at Gazi Primary School, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee were on their way to the city entrance surrounded by hotels and inns, and greeted the people in the surrounding area and took place in front of the Kapıcı Mosque. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who saw the kindergarten students in front of the Kapıcı Mosque, got out of his car and fondled and loved the children.
Kırşehir has never seen such a crowd before. Here, Hacı Ali, Mülâzım’s son Ethem Hacı and Terma Hacı’s son Hafız Şevket brought “takbirs” and sacrificed, while the public showed enthusiastic love and applauded Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee for minutes. In such a political environment, it is a national honor that will be recorded with appreciation in the history of the National Struggle for the people of Kırşehir, who, in the spirit and excitement of national independence, embrace the great hero and his friends warmly and sincerely.
d) Activities of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee in Kırşehir
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends first went to the government building after they were greeted with a great ceremony and enthusiasm in the square in front of the Kapıcı Mosque in Kırşehir. After a short rest here, M. Sıtkı (Doğu) Bey and Hilmi (Nural) Bey, members of the Youth Association, invited Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends to the association buildings for tea. Meanwhile, the Head of Kırşehir Defense-i Law Society, Mufti Halil (Gürbüz) Bey and his friends did not leave Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s side for a minute. As a result of this close interest, Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s confidence in the members of the Youth Association and the Defense of Rights Association has increased. In fact, he opened a code telegram sent to Mustafa Kemal Pasha with the decoder and allowed them to read it without any objection.
Mufti Khalil (Robust) According to Beyer’s testimony, Mustafa Kemal Pasha Kirsehir Defense of Rights has requested the following from the Association:
a) Erzurum and to be driven by orders issued in accordance with the principles set out in the Sivas Congress, because these orders are all kinds of situations prepared, considering all the citizens of this issue It
is the issue of announcing and enlightening, b) Establishing relations with the public at every opportunity and explaining the general situation.
The delegation, which left the government building, first visited the municipality and then the secondary school. He received the necessary information about the education situation of Kırşehir Sanjak in secondary school from Ömer Aydın (Young) Bey, who was the principal of the school and also the Deputy Director of National Education. In the meantime, the following conversation took place between Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Ömer Aydın Bey.
M. Kemal Pasha: – Principal, how many primary schools does Kırşehir have?
Ömer Aydın Bey: – Seventy, Sir,
M. Kemal Pasha: – How many villages do you have?
Ömer Aydın Bey: -Three hundred and sixty-two par
M. Kemal Pasha: – The number of schools is less than the number of villages. What do you think about ensuring that a school is opened in each village, Principal?
Ömer Aydın Bey: – Sir, if it is possible to employ reserve officers returning from the General War as instructors, it would be possible to put your ideas into practice. The reading rate can be increased at once.
With this speech, Mustafa Kemal Pasha is sure that the country will be saved, and it is very important in terms of showing the extent of his thoughts on education and training already. Because the situation of the people still in the organizational stage, the occupation of the country from place to place, the attitude of the Istanbul Government and the rebellions that started in various parts of Anatolia, Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s thoughts on education and schooling, how far-sighted he was and how devoted he was to his nation. clearly demonstrates his confidence.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation went to the Youth Association after these meetings at the secondary school and after drinking the coffees offered.
Members of Kırşehir Youth Association greeted Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation at the door and the member of the association, M. Sıtkı (Doğu) said: “Thank you for honoring our association on behalf of my young friends.” He then gave a short speech of thanks. After Cevat Hakkı Bey read his speech, the guests were served tea and the extraordinary situation the country was in in those days began to be discussed. The members of the association expressed their views in favor of the national struggle, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was very pleased after the interest and sensitivity shown by the youth of Kırşehir to the country’s issues.
In the meantime, after examining the bylaws of the Youth Association; “Dear young people, we are very happy with your excited attitude and actions. The principles drawn by your charter, by convincing that you believe in the spirit of our cause, which are in danger of captivity and obtaining freedom and independence, are seriously admirable. We are proud to see that you are all honorable journeymen of success in the future. In the form of a contract that made the managers of the association emotional and happy.
After this appreciative and meaningful speech at the Kırşehir Youth Association, Mustafa Kemal Pasha wrote the following text reflecting his current feelings and thoughts in the diary brought by the managers of the association and signed it with the members of the Representative Committee. Kirsehir youth and Kırşehir are as follows promises in this document, which is a pride document for the public:
“the kırşehir youth, homeland will prove that youth is a precious enmuzec the vas with mütehallî judgment with melancholy-i text and musîb-i signatures are eyle.
H. Behiç A. Rüstem M. Müfit H. Rauf M. Kemal”
(We sign with the conviction that the youth of Kırşehir are a valuable example of the youth of our country and are equipped with correct views.
24 December 1919
Hakkı Behiç Alfred Rüstem Mahzar Müfit Hüseyin Rauf Mustafa Kemal)
After these historical meetings and explanations in Kırşehir Youth Association, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who left the young people by saying goodbye to the young people, and members of the delegation, Müftü Halil (Gürbüz) Bey, and Sait Efendi’s (Çopur) Flour Factory near the current Ekinciler Flour Factory, on the edge of Kılıçözü, which was reserved for them. Sait) went to the house of his son, Teacher Mustafa (Erdem). The beds and quilts necessary for the guests to sleep were brought from the houses of the Mayor and the members. The dinner, consisting of soup, turkey rice pilaf, water pastry, pickles and fruit, was eaten on the ground table in a friendly atmosphere. Mustafa Kemal Pasha liked the traditional dish of Kırşehir, “su pastry”. During the dinner, the enthusiastic lantern procession organized by the Middle School Principal Ömer Aydın and attended by the secondary school students, Upon arriving in front of the building where they were staying, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation went out and greeted this enthusiastic group. Meanwhile, Middle School Principal Ömer Aydın Bey; “Your Honorable Pasha, we have faith that our soldiers, who will fight under your heroic command, will find their punishment by slapping the enemies that surround our country from all sides in order to prune the arms and wings of our homeland. The President of France, Raimonde Poincare, will later admit that he made a big mistake in saying that our country is sick. This nation needs your guidance to prove that our country is not sick and that our homeland is a lion’s den. “Your Honorable Pasha, we have faith that our soldiers, who will fight under your heroic command, will find their punishment by slapping the enemies that surround our country from all sides in order to prune the arms and wings of our homeland. The President of France, Raimonde Poincare, will later admit that he made a big mistake in saying that our country is sick. This nation needs your guidance to prove that our country is not sick and that our homeland is a lion’s den. “Your Honorable Pasha, we have faith that our soldiers, who will fight under your heroic command, will find their punishment by slapping the enemies that surround our country from all sides in order to prune the arms and wings of our homeland. The President of France, Raimonde Poincare, will later admit that he made a big mistake in saying that our country is sick. This nation needs your guidance to prove that our country is not sick and that our homeland is a lion’s den. He will admit later that he made a big mistake in saying that our country is sick. This nation needs your guidance to prove that our country is not sick and that our homeland is a lion’s den. He will admit later that he made a big mistake in saying that our country is sick. This nation needs your guidance to prove that our country is not sick and that our homeland is a lion’s den.
The government of Istanbul is in such a state of incapacity to sacrifice the independence it gained by shedding the blood of our ancestors, and it seems as if it cooperated with the enemy. This is the show of affection of the people you see, a clear sign of their sincere devotion to you. You exist. We wish you to achieve your goal and your health, dear and respected delegation…”
Upon Ömer Aydın (Young) Bey’s speech, Mustafa Kemal Pasha gave a long speech explaining his trust in the youth, the current situation in the country and what needs to be done. This speech was included in a book called “Atatürk in Kırşehir” by Cevat Hakkı Tarım Bey, who taught history, geography and physical education in secondary school in those days and later served as Kırşehir National Education Director. This speech of Mustafa Kemal Pasha was published in the “Kırşehir Newspaper” dated 30 August 1936. The most striking aspect of this speech is: “We need the supply of a prosperous homeland in order to live independently. There is a border we have drawn. We will not leave this border in the hands of foreigners, your security is very strong”, albeit implicitly, that the borders of the National Pact were considered before January 20, 1920, It was announced by Mustafa Kemal Pasha in Kırşehir. In the same speech, A. Ü. It has also been accepted as an official document by the Turkish Revolution History Institute.
After this speech, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, while the lantern procession dispersed in applause: “Dear people of Kırşehir and its youth! You made us feel so much. Everywhere we encountered enthusiastic demonstrations of public affection. We have seen that the faith of the people is strong.
‘Fatherland rests his dagger to the heart of the enemy,
will save baht-i None i have MADERA the land,
he said. Kemal, who came out of this nation, I say not with
pride , but on the basis of our nation’s nobility and heroism: ‘The enemy will put the dagger in the bosom of the homeland, he
will surely find his good luck to save,’
and when it comes to the life and freedom of the nation, the whole Turkish Nation, together with him. He stated that he could endure any kind of self-sacrifice.
e) Farewell of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Representative Committee from Kırşehir
Waking up very early in the morning of 25 December 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends went to the Government House after breakfast, passing through the streets populated by the people of Kırşehir. Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the delegation, after saying goodbye to the notables of the city one by one at the Government House, got into their cars and moved towards Kaman. Secondary School Principal Ömer Aydın took his place at the exit of the city with the students, as he did on the arrival of the delegation. When Mustafa Kemal Pasha saw that Ömer Aydın Bey and his students were waiting to see him off, he got out of his car, walked around for a while, patted them and said goodbye by shaking Ömer Bey’s hand. Meanwhile, the following conversation took place between Mustafa Kemal Pasha and Ömer Aydın Bey.
Ömer Aydın Bey – His Highness Pasha, if you manage and use the talents of our nation well, which we are absolutely sure of, you will ensure both our homeland and our independence, and you will have written a page of glory, honor and epic worthy of your name in our national history. We wish you all good travels.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha – We are sure that we will be successful on this road by using the high talent of our nation and you can be sure”, and they got back in their cars and left for Kaman on Thursday, 25 December 1919, accompanied by Kırşehir horsemen.
f) Developments After the Arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee to Kaman
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee were sent off from Kırşehir at around 9:00 am on Thursday, 25 December 1919, and stopped at Sofular (Aydınlar) 20 km away from Kaman at around 11:00 and had a short conversation with the village grocery store about the villages in this vicinity and Kaman. The horsemen of Kırşehir met with the horsemen of Kaman on the hill slightly ahead of Aydınlar Village, played javelin together and then returned to Kırşehir. The delegation, on the other hand, was greeted by a large crowd in front of an inn at the entrance of Kaman, under the guidance of Kaman horsemen. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was greeted enthusiastically by the Kamanlis, wears a yellow cap on his head and a military dress on his back. Together with the people gathered around Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation, who got out of the car, Hacı Ali Bektaş Ağa, the head of the Kaman Defense Society, also came and took the guests to his own farm with the horses he had prepared. Here in the form of an afternoon breakfast; Eggs cooked in oil, yoghurt, molasses and fruit were eaten. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who rested for an hour to relieve the tiredness of the road, had meetings with some people from the villages, explained the situation in the country, that the sultan became incapable of work, that the country was occupied in places, Erzurum and Erzurum. The decisions taken at the Sivas Congresses were agreed. He also asked the people there about the situation of the villagers, the “tithe” tax, the practices of the “multezim” and the amount of animal raising. Afterwards, he made a speech by going to a high place against the crowd waiting outside. The content of this speech made by Mustafa Kemal Pasha is conveyed by Halil Bey, the nephew of H. Ali Bektaş Ağa and the Mayor of Kaman, as follows.
– How beautiful is your village, full of trees, who knows how nice and cool the weather will be in summer. Which one of us and which one of us would be willing to let the boots of the enemy roam inside your paradise-like village? Here comes the enemy in cute Izmir. All of our citizens there are treated like prisoners. The sultan is also in a captive state and is not in a position to find a solution to the country’s problems. The enemies want to destroy us by cooperating with a thousand and one tricks. With your help, we will try to get through these disastrous days.
After Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s speech was over, the people gathered around him showed love and after chatting for a while, they entered the house of H. Ali Bektaş Ağa to eat the prepared dinner. After the dinner, the main menu of which consisted of fried chicken and bulgur pilaf, was eaten happily on the floor table, the members of the delegation slept in the rooms reserved for them. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, on the other hand, did not sleep for a while to take some notes and review the notes he had taken, and during this time, Kaman Mayor Halil Bey accompanied him and offered treats.
On Friday, 26 December 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his delegation, who got up early in the morning, were sent off to Ankara in a rainy and muddy environment by a crowd of horsemen from Kaman, the surrounding villages and Kırşehir.
One of the cars belonging to the delegation, which departed from Kaman, got stuck in the mud while approaching Beynam, one of the members of the delegation, Hakkı Behiç Bey, fell ill due to the cold and rainy weather, and some of the delegation members spent the night in the cars stuck in the mud, while Mazhar Müfit and Rauf Bey’s pedestrian When they came to Beynam and asked for help, with the help of the villagers who came with mules and oxen from Beynam, the car and its contents could only come to Beynam before morning.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the members of the delegation, who spent the night of 26-27 December 1919 at the Bey’s name, arrived in Ankara on Saturday, 27 December 1919 and were greeted enthusiastically by the horsemen and seymen from Ankara, by playing dances and dancing halay at Dikmen Keklik Spring. Since this date, Ankara has been the “city of hope” where deputies, intellectuals and patriots who came running from the National Struggle Center and Istanbul met.
4 – Attitudes and Contributions of the People of Kırşehir in the National Struggle Kırşehir
and its environs started the preparatory work for the National Struggle with the Kırşehir Youth Association, which was established at the end of the First World War, and the Defense of Rights Associations established in almost all settlements.
Ali Rıza Bey, born in Avanos (1871) and M. Rıza Bey (Silsüpür) born in Hamitköy (1877), participated in the last Ottoman Parliamentary Assembly as Kırşehir MPs of the Defense of Rights group. These deputies came to Ankara after the official occupation of Istanbul (March 16, 1920) and continued to support the national struggle.
The people of Kırşehir did not adopt a surrendering attitude like the Istanbul Government against the occupations that started after the Mudros Armistice Agreement, closely followed all the work of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee, who started the National Struggle, and stood by them until the end. When the people of Mucur, who had been following Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends since Samsun, learned that a national congress would be convened in Sivas, they sent the District Governor Cevat Bey and Hacıbektaş Town Manager Mucurlu Avni (Erkanlı) Bey, representing Mucur, to Sivas to attend the congress. . However, this delegation had to return to Mucur when they learned that the congress was over when they arrived in Sarkisla and that the Mustafa Kemal Pasha Representative Committee had departed from Sivas. This positive attitude of the people of Kırşehir is also clearly understood from the code telegram dated 28 December 1919 from the Ankara province. Despite the fact that other parts of the country are unaware of the development of the National Struggle, the welcoming of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee with great ceremonies in Central Anatolian cities such as Kayseri, Kırşehir and Ankara and the sensitivity of the people of the region to the issue are extremely striking. The people of Kırşehir stood by Atatürk after the proclamation of the Republic, as they did in the National Struggle, and became the defenders of his principles and reforms.
a) Political Contributions
In the Parliament opened on April 23, 1920, Kırşehir Ahmet Müfit (Kurutluoğlu) Bey, Rıza (Silsüpür) Bey, Yahya Galip (Kargı) Bey, Sadık (Savtekin) Bey, Cemalettin Çelebi Efendi, Bekir (Kocaoğlu) Efendi, Cevdet (Seçkin) ) was represented by Mr. Yahya Galip Bey, one of these deputies, had Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrested in line with the orders of the Istanbul Government, and after the arrest of Ankara Governor Muhittin Pasha, who tried to prevent the National Struggle at the very beginning; He served as the Governor of Ankara, and later as a Kırşehir deputy for three terms, he rendered important services to the new Turkish State. After the arrest of Muhittin Pasha, Treasurer Yahya Galip Bey was elected by the people of Ankara and appointed as the Governor. This is the situation where the people of Ankara live in a city in the middle of Anatolia. It is a very important event in terms of democratically electing its manager. In addition, such a course of action is in a way a revolt against the Istanbul Government.
Governor Yahya Galip Bey has been watching Mustafa Kemal Pasha closely from Samsun and he believes that the liberation of the country will only be achieved with a national struggle that started under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. As a matter of fact, while Mustafa Kemal Pasha was in Amasya for the Amasya Interview (20-22 October 1919), he received a coded telegram dated 15 October 1919 from Yahya Galip Bey, who was the Governor of Ankara. In this telegram, Yahya Galip Bey said: “We cannot leave our destiny to a government that does not know the destiny of the nation, nor to governors to be sent randomly. To appoint Ziya Pasha, the former Governor of Bitlis, here and Suphi Bey to Konya, which the Mahmut Ferit Pasha cabinet could not appoint or send. The central government took the first step. Before the establishment of the National Assembly, we had previously suggested that an outsider should not be appointed to any civil service. By sending the Governor here again, the central government means that it wants to extinguish the national movement here. Just as you resigned from the military and decided to work as a member of the nation, I decided to withdraw from here and do the duty of my nation in the same way. By saying, “Please let me know to whom I will leave the power of attorney until the governor arrives”, he provided full support to the National Struggle by showing his loyalty to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee and that he would take all kinds of orders and authority from them. he decided to do the duty of my nation in the same way. By saying, “Please let me know to whom I will leave the power of attorney until the governor arrives”, he provided full support to the National Struggle by showing his loyalty to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee and that he would take all kinds of orders and authority from them. he decided to do the duty of my nation in the same way. By saying, “Please let me know to whom I will leave the power of attorney until the governor arrives”, he provided full support to the National Struggle by showing his loyalty to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representation Committee and that he would take all kinds of orders and authority from them.
Yahya Galip Bey took an active role as the governor of Ankara during the meeting of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee in Ankara on 27 December 1919. Yahya Galip Bey, who was the governor of Ankara, first released the members of the Union and Progress that had been arrested by Muhittin Pasha, and therefore he was given the title “Hakan”. Yahya Galip Bey, who had a warm and fatherly nature, was able to intervene in the private lives of the deputies when he was the governor of Ankara. As a matter of fact; It is stated that “Yahya Galip Bey would chase even the deputies with a stick when he saw them drinking.”
Yahya Galip Bey was in the GNAT for three terms from April 23, 1920 to May 4, 1931, as a deputy for Kırşehir. During this period, he took the floor 45 times; finance, foreign policy, communism-Bolshevikism, constitution, law, national nationalism, waste, democracy, healthy functioning of the parliament, independence courts and their work, activities of Christians and minorities in our country, Greek occupation, national pact, social aid, parliamentary talks He has been influential in the work of the parliament by expressing his views and thoughts on the appropriations of the ministries and similar issues.
Ahmet Müfit (Kurutluoğlu) Bey is another Kırşehir deputy who was also influential in the first term of the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Müfit Bey, who was from a family with a high level of knowledge and was the son of Müftü Hacı Vehbi Efendi, was born in Kırşehir in 1879. After graduating from Kırşehir High School, Müfit Bey went to Istanbul for his madrasa education at the age of fifteen, and received a diploma in Islamic Law. After his madrasa education, he served in different courthouses in Kırşehir and after his father’s death in 1910, he came to Kırşehir and became the Mufti of Kırşehir. Considering the Armistice of Mudros, which was signed at the end of World War I, as extremely dangerous for the continuity of the state,
After the First World War, Müfit Bey, who was sent to the “Council of War” by Grand Vizier Damat Ferit Pasha, who collapsed into the government like a black cloud and displayed an administration against the National Struggle, found an opportunity before the Erzurum Congress and escaped to the Defense of Kırşehir. i He was in the Law Organization and became one of the leaders of Kırşehir, which contributed to the National Struggle by establishing relations with the Representative Committee in Sivas.
Müfit Bey showed a great effort with the other Kırşehir deputy and his friend Yahya Galip Bey during the meeting of the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara on April 23, 1920, and in this regard, Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) Pasha remembers that Kırşehir deputies were present at the assembly of the Assembly in Ankara. stated that it has an important place.
Müfit Bey, like other clergy, played an important role in the National Struggle, served as the “Second Chief Deputy” in the first Turkish Grand National Assembly and actively participated in the work of the assembly. Müfit Bey took the floor after the people of Ankara gathered in front of the Turkish Grand National Assembly to protest the occupation due to the first anniversary of the occupation of
İzmir : Sir, today is the first anniversary of the occupation of İzmir by the Greeks. The people of Ankara did not accept this occupation and protested. They are gathered outside. Speaking on behalf of the assembly, I suggest that you all go out to share their feelings; It has shown that the Turkish Grand National Assembly has the power to direct all its members, as well as being extremely sensitive to the invasion of the country.
As a Kırşehir deputy, Müfit Bey was appointed as an inspector by the War Council to control and accelerate the work of the purchasing commissions in the Koçhisar and Kırşehir regions. Having given up hope on the Sultan and the Istanbul Government at the beginning, Müfit Bey gave full support to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the National Struggle. Later, he took part in the second group, which was also known as the opposition group in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and reached 123, and even became one of the spokespersons of the group. .
Müfit Bey, who could not be elected as a deputy in the second and later terms, withdrew from politics, worked as a lawyer since 1923 and died on 15 June 1958 at the age of 79. Müfit Bey is known as a very cultured person, who dresses very neatly and elegantly. In the speech he made at the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, he strongly rejected Bolshevikism as he defended the national identity and Islam, and advocated the need for an attack against the invading states, starting from Afyonkarahisar. Müfit Bey took the floor about thirty times during the time he was in the parliament and served as the Deputy Chief; The meeting and purpose of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, the rule of law, budget negotiations, ensuring peace and security in the country, the debts of the Ottoman Empire, foreign policy, the necessity of independence courts,
Another Kırşehir deputy, Çelebi Cemalettin Efendi, who was in Hacıbektaş, was not only an influential person in Kırşehir and Hacıbektaş, but also the leader of the Alevis and Bektashis in all of Anatolia. Ankara Governor Muhittin Pasha went to Kırşehir to recruit him to the Damat Ferit Government and used every means possible, including money, but was unsuccessful. Çelebi Cemalettin Efendi, who was next to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee from the beginning, served as the “first term” deputy in the Turkish Grand National Assembly and supported the National Struggle with all the Alevis he represented. He even acted as “Vice President of the Assembly” for a while.
b) Military Contributions
Although the people of Kırşehir actively participated in the defense of the country in the Balkan War (1912-1913) and the First World War (1914-1918) with the children they sent to various fronts during the war years the country was in, they were not invaded by foreigners after the Armistice of Mudros. The national excitement and spirit of struggle remained alive, and it started to make the necessary preparations against possible dangers in terms of military. As a matter of fact, in the resurrection adventure of the Turkish Nation, which started in Samsun on May 19, 1919 and ended in Ankara on December 27, 1919, Kırşehir became an important support center, and Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the Representative Committee traveled to Ankara from the Kayseri border. It was ensured by the people of Kırşehir to reach them safely. Also, during the Sivas Congress, Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends,
When the Istanbul Government tried to send another Governor in place of Governor Muhittin Pasha, who was dismissed, the President of Ankara Defense-i Law Association, Müftü Rıfat Börekçi), made a strong move and sent the Governor of Damat Ferit, who had come to Eskişehir, to Istanbul again.
When Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived in Mucur on 21 December 1919, he was enthusiastically welcomed by the people of Mucur. In order to welcome the delegation and prevent a possible raid, a volunteer detachment of twenty people was formed under the direction of the Gendarmerie Commander Captain Sadik (Vicdani) Bey, formed from Mucur and the surrounding villages. Every need of this core force was met by the people of Mucur, and then this unit was reinforced and sent to the İnönü Front under the name of “Mucur National Cavalry Detachment”. Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was extremely pleased with this kind of organization, said: “You have already made our national cause prominent in your neighborhood with absolute success”.
During the establishment of a regular army in the National Struggle, in the report submitted to the Chief of General Staff on 4 August 1920 by the Western Front Command and describing the manpower activities of the Western Front: described”.
M. Rıza Bey, who was the 1st Term Kırşehir Deputy, went to İnegöl, Bilecik and Yenişehir surroundings with a force of more than five hundred people, consisting of his subordinates and the prisoners he had taken out of the prison, under the command of “Ertuğrul Group” Commander Kazım Özalp Bey. He supported the struggle.
After the Armistice of Mudros, the people of Kırşehir took a pro-National Struggle attitude, did not fall for the provocations and suggestions made by the Istanbul Government and foreign powers, sided with the Kuva-i Milliye, and did not even support the Çapanoğlu revolt that started right next to it. took an opposing stance.
Many of the youth of Kırşehir, who were called to the front after the preparation phase of the National Struggle and the establishment of the regular army, were martyred. During the war, almost all of the directors of the Kırşehir Youth Association were recruited, causing the association’s activities to cease. The number of martyrs who could be identified in the War of Independence; There are two hundred and ten people from the center of Kırşehir, seventy-five from Mucur and eighty-five from Avanos.
At the beginning of July 1921, domestic arsenal depots such as Ankara, Yahşiyan, Akşehir, Köprüköy, Kırşehir, Kayseri and Ulukışla were created to be delivered to the Western front. 1600 Ottoman, 100 German, 1000 Russian, 1316 British, 261 Austrian and 67 French chests were created in Köprüköy and Kırşehir warehouses. A total of 1120 chests, including ammunition, were stored in Kırşehir warehouse and 1014 chests of infantry ammunition were stored in Köprüköy warehouse. In addition to these, there were 1159 Ottoman serial field artillery ammunition and 2186 British field artillery arsenal in the Kırşehir national defense depot.
In order to protect the “Range Organizations” established by the Ministry of National Defense, the Ankara Command sent a guard company of 100 to Kırşehir. There was one team each in Köprüköy-Kırşehir and Küçüktaş, with the headquarters of the division being Kırşehir. The “Conservation Union”, which was established for the first time in Kırşehir on September 8, 1920, was abolished on November 8, 1920 and the union was sent to Kayseri by order of the Ministry. On February 17, 1921, a “Range Line Command” was established in Kırşehir, affiliated to the Kayseri Range Regional Inspectorate.
Kırşehir Range Line Command was in the form of “Range Point Commands” in Kırşehir, Hacıbektaş, Keskin and Mucur, “Provision Warehouse” in Kırşehir, Hacıbektaş, Keskin, “Ambarlı Mansion” in Topaklı, and a “Arm” in Kırşehir.
Again, there were “supply centers” in Kırşehir and Mucur, and an “Infirmary and Weapons and Equipment Warehouse” in Kırşehir.
After the Kütahya-Eskişehir Wars, the Ministry of National Defense gave research, accumulation and collection tasks to the Range Organizations on July 28, 1921, upon the need. Kırşehir Range Regional Inspectorate has also established a road transport between Aksaray and Konya Ereğlisi. It was decided to establish stock warehouses in Sivas-Kayseri region, Yozgat, Çorum, Kırşehir regions in order to meet the subsistence of 100,000 people and 50,000 animals, and warehouses were opened in Köprüköy and Kırşehir in line with the decision. For a clearer understanding of the conditions under which the War of Independence was won, it would be useful to state how the Kırşehir Line Command worked. The Contractor Transport Arms under the command of the Command consisted of Double Car Arms No. 232, Circuit Arms No. 231 and two Donkey Arms. These units, which consisted of four branches, consisted of 4 transport contractors, 8 privates, 10 pairs of six cars, 25 camels and 90 donkeys. With the line commands created, the materials needed in the fronts were collected from Anatolia and shipped. For example, during the Battle of Sakarya, 10.5 tons of weapons of various diameters and sizes, 44.5 tons of ammunition, 152 tons of food and feed, and 20 tons of equipment and materials were sent via Kayseri-Kırşehir-Yahşihan.
As part of the preparations for the Great Offensive, which started on August 26, 1922, 48.5 tons of weapons, 221.5 tons of ammunition, 1367 tons of food and feed, and 49.5 tons of equipment and materials were sent via the Kayseri-Kırşehir-Yahşiyan road.
Upon the decision taken by the War Council in its meeting on February 26, 1922, Kırşehir vehicles were temporarily placed at the disposal of the Aksaray Commission to transport the grains collected in Aksaray.
In December 1921, there were military hospitals with 500 beds in Keskin, 750 beds in Avanos and 1500 beds in Kırşehir. However, later on, the number of beds in the hospital in Kırşehir decreased to 400.
In May 1920, the Army Health Department recommended the Red Crescent to establish a “convalescent house” in the rear of the front, in a well-ventilated place, for the officers who need to be discharged from hospitals and rest for a long time. This suggestion was taken into consideration, and an officer’s convalescence room was established in the high school building in Kırşehir. Later, the deficiencies of the building were completed and it was converted into a 100-bed convalescent home. The Red Crescent Hospital in Eskişehir was moved to Kırşehir as a result of the enemy attack that started towards Kütahya, Afyon and Eskişehir on 13 July 1921. Since there is no State Hospital in Kırşehir, examinations and treatments of poor people and families of officers were carried out here, and the medicines of the patients were given by the Red Crescent. The hospital was closed on 1 December 1921 after serving for 3.5 months.
c) Contributions from Other Sides The
people of Kırşehir, with the interest they showed to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, who set out for the National Struggle, assured that there was an exciting society behind them that would support them, and ensured that the morale of the members of the Delegation was kept high.
The people of Kırşehir supported the National Struggle by contributing to the decisions of the Ministry of National Defense, the War Committee and the “Tekalif-i Milliye” orders, in proportion to their strength. The people of Kırşehir, who did not only contribute to the National Struggle militarily and politically, also supported them financially by sending forty thousand kuruş, which was a high amount for that time, by the Mucur Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti. In addition, Mucur Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti continued its support in this direction by sending another thirty thousand kuruş to be used in the construction and repair of the first parliament building opened in Ankara.
In the order sent by Mustafa Kemal Pasha as the Commander-in-Chief to the Western Front Command, the Koçhisar and Aksaray procurement commissions stated that they could seek help from the Kırşehir Governorship and the Road Command during their work and that these requests would be fulfilled immediately, Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s message to the people of the region. clearly demonstrates his confidence. The six-point order issued by the Commander-in-Chief on this subject on February 14, 1922 is exactly as follows:
1. A procurement commission will be established under the chairmanship of large local administrators in Keskin and Kırşehir, in order to be established and work according to the rules of the Commander-in-Chief No. 1 on 23.01.1992.
2. Twenty thousand liras per week will be given to Kırşehir Commissioner and ten thousand liras will be given to Keskin Commissioner by the Ministry of Defense.
3. Commissions, barley, wheat, flour and money will be bought (in cash) and toll vehicles will be left at the Yahşihan Military Warehouse. The National Defense determines the rate of food to be taken and reports it to the commissions.
4. The commissions shall document their work in minutes in accordance with Article 15 of the Order No. (1) and hand it over to the National Defense.
5. Commissions are responsible for hard work and promptness in purchases and relocations.
6. This order, dated 14.02.1992 and numbered 3, was given to the Ministry of National Defense and the Kırşehir Sanjak, the province of Ankara, the Keskin District Governorate, and the Ministry of Interior for information.
The people of Kırşehir did not comply with the Armistice of Mudros, and they showed their reactions in different ways against the Allied Powers and their supporters who occupied the Anatolian lands, which they deem suitable for their interests, with various excuses.
The people of Mucur, who heard that the Greeks had occupied İzmir on May 15, 1919, appealed to the relevant authorities and protested this unjust occupation both throughout the country and at the international level. With their applications to various European governments, they demanded the abolition of the occupation, and stated that if these demands were not fulfilled, they would take their rights with their own power. The people of Mucur describe their feelings and thoughts in the telegram they sent to the Ministry of War with the signature of the “Mucur Society of Islam and the National Committee”: Our people are in a rage and we are preparing to help our brothers there. At the same time, we do not hesitate to apply to European governments. If Europe does not hear our rightful cry, our determination to defend our rights with our own strength is firm. Guide us.”
The people of Keskin, who were affiliated to Kırşehir in terms of administration during the years of the National Struggle, were in great sadness when they heard that Izmir and its surroundings were occupied by the Greeks. On the subject, the Keskin people published a text declaring that they are ready for the National Struggle signed by Mufti Mehmet Sadik and a few other people on behalf of the whole people. In the text, it was stated that there was a deep sadness in the people due to the occupation of İzmir: “We are ready for action with all our enthusiasm, considering this occupation movement as a clear violation of our national dignity and law. Relying on the promises of the four states on national rights,
The occupation of Istanbul by the Allied Powers on March 16, 1920 was met with great sadness by the people of Kırşehir, and the people of Kırşehir protested this behavior, which did not comply with the principles of nationality, freedom, independence and patriotism that the western states had expressed for a long time. . At the end of the rally, the following decision text was sent to the Presidency of Ankara Defense of Law Society with the signature of “Kırşehir Müdafaa-i Hukuk Chief Hilmi”:
“This rape will constitute a blow to the principles of freedom, nationality and patriotism created by twenty centuries of human civilization rather than Ottoman domination, and this incident will have no effect on the determination and faith of the Ottoman nation in preserving its existence and independence. We protest this sad event ‘with the utmost vehemence’, since only free nations would have assumed a great historical responsibility by accepting this injustice. We expect that all kinds of responsibilities arising from this incident will also belong to those responsible, and we expect the supply and injustice to be repaired as soon as possible”.
Upon the occupation of Istanbul, a rally was organized by the Mucurlus on 19.03.1920 and the situation was protested by telegrams they sent to the representatives of the occupying forces after the rally. District Governor Cevat Bey reported their work to the representation committee with the following telegram: “Today, after the performance of the blessed Friday prayer, a big rally was held in front of the municipality office, and the protest telegrams, which included violent and influential expressions explaining the patriotic feelings of the Islamic Ummah, who were present on the occasion of the final state of our beloved Istanbul. The copy was sent to the representatives in its entirety”
The people of Mucur, who closely followed the negative movements that started in the form of occupation, killing, pillage and looting in every corner of the country with Mondros, on 26.01.1920, against the persecution of the Armenians, who acted together with the French, in the Southeast Anatolian Region and the occupation of Maraş, both to the relevant states. He protested against the situation and expressed the sensitivity of the people of the region to the issue in a telegram sent to the “Ankara Defense of Law Society Headquarters Member”. The telegram text, which is extremely meaningful, is in the nature of the cry of the Mucur people against the imperialist states: “We have received the news that the French, whom we now know as civilized, in collaboration with the Armenians, killed our religious brothers under artillery and machine gun fire, and completely destroyed the works of humanity and civilization. Article! … The State of America and the European States, which are introduced as the conscience of civilization and humanity!.. Immediately, without hesitation, confirm the genuine decision of this false civilization, which has always consumed the whole world with the words of justice, civilization and humanity, and thus consoled it! Prove and disprove with quick actions!.. O Italy, France, England, avoid being the black and stained tares that history will fill with black pages, with the great intellectual decision of the whole human world, avoid historical responsibility! Deliver right and equity as soon as possible in a way that befits humanity, impartially! Prove and disprove with your fair and quick actions!.. O Italy, France, England, avoid being the black and stained carcasses of history that will be filled with black pages, and avoid historical responsibility with the great intellectual decision of the whole human world! Deliver right and equity as soon as possible in a way that befits humanity, impartially! Prove and disprove with your fair and quick actions!.. O Italy, France, England, avoid being the black and stained carcasses of history that will be filled with black pages, and avoid historical responsibility with the great intellectual decision of the whole human world! Deliver right and equity as soon as possible in a way that befits humanity, impartially!
Break, destroy, crush these despicable acts against humanity now!.. Gain fame with this, always gather the free supply of all humanity to yourself and try to think.
We protest the action taken with complete hatred and violence, and we demand that the responsible people be punished urgently and severely, as the incident still comes to an end.”
We see that the people of Kırşehir closely follow the political developments in Istanbul and the changes in the government. The telegrams sent upon the resignation of the Ali Rıza Pasha cabinet show that the people of Kırşehir follow the state policy and the events and developments very closely. Regarding the subject, in the telegram sent by Nuri Bey, Head of the Mucur Defense of Rights Association, to the Chamber of Deputies; He stated that the Cabinet was resigned as a result of the pressure of foreign states, that a cabinet was wanted to be established against national goals, and that the nation would certainly not be able to tolerate such a situation.
Upon the resignation of the Ali Rıza Pasha Cabinet, in the telegram sent from Keskin on March 5, 1920 with the signatures of “Keskin Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti President Sadık” and his friends: “We have heard about the resignation of the Ali Rıza Pasha Cabinet. Instead, we propose the establishment of a cabinet that will work in accordance with the national interests and national purpose, otherwise we declare that the nation will not be able to endure, sir.” has been called.
The notables and intellectuals of Kırşehir first supported the National Struggle, and then made significant contributions to the adoption and spread of the reforms. During the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, many people such as Governor Yahya Galip Bey, MPs Müfit Kurutlu oglu and M. Rıza Bey, teachers Ömer Aydın Genç, Cevat Hakkı Tarım, Arif Sıtkı Gönendik and Habip Arıöz played an important role. In addition, their outstanding efforts were seen in the Republic’s being loved and adopted as a virtuous regime.
During the country tour of the Great Leader Atatürk as Head Teacher for the purpose of introducing and teaching the new Turkish letters, he also stopped by Yerköy station and met with the notables of the educator from Kırşehir, who came with two buses to invite him to Kırşehir and to meet with him. During this meeting, Atatürk found the offer of Cevat Hakkı Tarım, addressing Atatürk:
– My Pasha, if all the pages of Ulus were published in new letters, it would be easier for the public, Atatürk said to CHP General Secretary Saffet Arıkan Bey, who was with him. :
– Saffet, note… Upon his order, Ulus Newspaper, which is the official newspaper, used to publish only the front page with new letters, but after this speech it was published with new letters.
Encouraged by Atatürk’s positive approach to innovative ideas, Cevat Hakkı Bey made a second suggestion:
– My pasha, our people have difficulty in reading (ş) by combining the letters (ch). I think it would be easier if the letter (s) was written as the letter (ş) by putting the (,) sign, he said. Atatürk, who found this request plausible, said:
– Saffet, note this too, he gave the order.
To summarize; The people of Kırşehir tried to give all kinds of material and moral support to the National Struggle. As a matter of fact, with the soldiers and civilians he trained, he participated in the National Struggle effectively, and as a reliable town, he made extremely positive contributions to the National Struggle with the storage of all kinds of weapons and equipment, making the shipment, and activities of associations and societies.
While the “mandate” debates were held at the Sivas Congress (4-11 September 1919), the reaction of the people of Kırşehir against the invasions, the resignation of the Ali Rıza Pasha Cabinet, who defended the national cause, against the surrendering policy followed by Damat Ferit Pasha and against the occupations. From the reactions they showed, it is seen that they acted for full independence, and they made all kinds of sacrifices by giving full support to Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his friends, the leader of this policy.
5 – Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s relations with Kırşehir after the
National Struggle Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who spent about five days in Kırşehir during the preparation stage for the National Struggle, managed to achieve the success of the National Struggle and established the Republic in Kırşehir and the Republic. We see that the people of Kırşehir have not forgotten.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha, as the President of the Republic of Turkey, came to Kırşehir with his wife Latife Hanım on 17 October 1924 at around 17.00. Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the delegation were enthusiastically welcomed outside the city by Governor Atıf Bey, Mayor Baktıroğlu Ziya Bey, Heads of Departments and some people. At the entrance of the city, all Kırşehir residents were greeted by a large crowd of people from schools, villages and towns, with displays of affection and applause in the form of “Long live our great Chief”. Sacrifices were made for Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who passed under the arches set up along the street from the entrance of the city to the center. The women from Kırşehir gathered in the area opposite the Government House. Habip Arıöz, an innovative teacher in the area in front of the government building, made a speech expressing the gratitude, gratitude and devotion of the people of Kırşehir, saying “welcome” on behalf of the people of Kırşehir. In this speech of the teacher, he said that they would follow Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha with full devotion in his works on the way of the Republic, reforms and innovation, and he assured him on this matter.
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha received the mayor, the Merchants Committees, the officials and the Mucur Delegation at the Government building, while Gazi; “What is the most important factor in maintaining public order?” When he was asked, those who were there answered in unison: “It is the declaration of the Republic”.
Here, Kırşehir Governor Atıf Bey presented a pair of Kırşehir carpets to Latife Hanım.
The third meeting of Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha with the people of Kırşehir was in Yerköy on 20 September 1928. On the occasion of the alphabet reform, he started his country tour from Istanbul on September 14, 1928, to Sinop with the Izmir ferry, from there to Samsun on September 16, and then to Ankara on September 21, 1928, via Amasya, Sivas and Kayseri. When the news was received that Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who went on a tour of Anatolia with the aim of adopting the new letters, was going to pass through Yerköy, the Kırşehir delegation of sixty-seventy people, under the chairmanship of Kırşehir Governor B. Nazım Akyürek, went to Yerköy by automobiles. The station, which is populated by the people of Kırşehir, Yozgat, Çiçekdağı and Yerköy, is equipped with carpets, flags and colored radium lamps brought from Kırşehir. The people of Kırşehir greeted them with a banner that read, “People of Kırşehir Respectfully Greet the Great Savior” on a red background, while the people of Mecidiye (Çiçekdağ) greeted with a banner that read “Respectfully the Great Veteran of the Mecidiyes”. After getting off the train, Atatürk and other guests greeted the gathered people, Atatürk: “How do you learn new letters?” he asked. Cevat Hakkı Tarım, who is a member of the Kırşehir delegation, and the people there all together: “Learning new letters is a debt of national dignity and conscience for us.” he replied. In a way, this visit of Atatürk also had the quality of checking whether the letters were learned or not. Atatürk, who entered the hall at the station, When he saw the blackboards prepared by Cevat Hakkı Tarım, he asked for chalk and ordered Cevat Bey to sit on the board. Just then, a member of the Yozgat delegation handed Atatürk a pocket notebook and a pen and asked them to sign on behalf of the Turkish Hearth. Atatürk said: “Is now his turn?” He smiled and sent that person to the throne and had the following sentence written: “Turkish Hearths have (have) a very valuable opportunity for the nation to illuminate”
Later, Atatürk had the people present read parts of the reading book written in new letters, emphasized some spelling rules and expression mistakes, and made corrections.
When he saw the teacher Ömer Aydın Bey, who greeted him warmly and respectfully and organized a lantern procession on their first visit to Kırşehir, and showed great interest during his speeches and farewell, he immediately remembered him, and here he spoke laudatory words to him: “The Turkish Nation. He once again expressed his high appreciation and love for this honorable training army by dictating the sentence “The Nurlu Army of the ‘s High Leaders, Teachers, Are Seriously Making the Nation Grateful to Them”.
Later, Atatürk had the Chief Teacher (Manager) Oğuz Bey of Çiçekdağı district primary school write a sentence and received information about learning and teaching the new letters in the district.
During this inspection, Atatürk, who saw that the teachers Naci Genç and Nesibe Gönendik, who had started to learn the new letters a week ago, read and wrote flawlessly with the new letters, was extremely pleased and immensely happy that his reforms were adopted and implemented. When Mustafa Kemal Pasha found the suitable environment and the teachers who were interested in the subject, he made enlightening explanations on many issues related to writing rules for more than an hour in the station building, even though he was way tired. Then, sitting in the chair prepared for him, Atatürk signed the reading book handed by Cevat Hakkı Tarım, writing the date September 20, 1928. Later on, Atatürk sent a circular regarding the new spelling rules to the Governorships by telegram from Ankara on September 21, with his own signature.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s last visit to Kırşehir was on 1 February 1934. When the news of this sudden visit to be made on a very severe winter day was heard, Cevat Hakkı Tarım Bey asked his son, Müfit Kurutlu, who served as Kırşehir Deputy in the first term of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, “I wonder what is the reason for this trip in the apocalypse in this snow?” Müfit Bey said: “I know, His Holiness, that he should not decide on something or else.. Opposition will make it possible.”
Upon hearing that Governor B. Nazım Akyürek had gone to meet Atatürk with the gendarmerie commander alone, Cevat Hakkı Tarım Bey and his wife, Turgut Çopuroğlu and his daughter, Arif Sıtkı Gönendik, one of the secondary school teachers, and his wife, Teacher Nesibe Hanım, and Müfit Bey’s wife Mihribuna Hanım. The group formed by the group went as far as Özbağ region by singing the anthem “Smoke has taken the mountain’s head”. The greeters, who thought that they would be at dusk due to the extreme cold of the weather, returned to join the people waiting in front of the hospital at the city entrance. The automobile convoy, which brought Atatürk and other guests, stopped in front of the crowd who showed their enthusiasm. After getting out of his car and shaking hands with the government officials and dignitaries on the front line, Atatürk went to the hospital. He visited the patients and after meeting Müfit Bey’s wife and the broadcasters, he came to the People’s Party building prepared for him, accompanied by a large crowd. This sudden trip also alarmed the authorities in Ankara, and Kırşehir Governor B. Nazım Bey could not announce the arrival of Atatürk to the public due to security reasons. Atatürk, along with Kılıç Ali Bey, Afet İnan, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Ruşen Eşref Ünaydın, some commanders and other friends, came to Kırşehir via Bala-Kaman.
After drinking their tea and coffee and resting for a while, Atatürk and the guests walked out angrily towards the notables of Kırşehir, who were waiting at the door to meet. The situation that angered Atatürk is; Upon Atatürk’s request from the party chairman where the guests would stay, a member of the General Assembly handed Atatürk a letter written in Arabic letters. Atatürk said, “I don’t know such writing,” threw the paper and went out. This event, which caused Atatürk’s sadness, also greatly upset the people of Kırşehir who were there. Atatürk, who went to the Governor’s Mansion (belonging to Celal Efendi) in the imaret district to the northeast of the city center, spent the night here, on February 2, 1934, to go to Yozgat via Yerköy.
Because the road between the city center and the Governor’s Mansion was extremely bad and muddy, the Governor’s car got stuck in the mud on the way to the mansion. Atatürk was also disturbed by the badness of the road and he had a conversation with the Governor on this issue.
– The house you live in is very beautiful, which street are you going from?
The governor points out a narrow muddy street through the window. Atatürk said:
– How many years have you been living in this house? she asks. When the governor
says, “Seven years,” Atatürk frowned. Atatürk:
– If you put a stone on the street every time you go home, this mud street would be a pavement. Pity!… he expressed his sadness.
Governor B. Nazım Bey stated to Cevat Hakkı Tarım Bey that Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who was the son of Adana Governor, stopped by Adana on his way back from Aleppo and they had a conversation like this. Atatürk: “Governor, Governor! The most urgent and imminent measure that will bring freedom and independence to this country is to establish a national government in the heart of Anatolia. We can get started right here…!” Against the statement of Governor Bey: “Pasha, there is a six-hundred-year-old Sultanate and Caliphate in Istanbul, there is a government established by him, my armies are in this state, the enemies have invaded many parts of the country, I don’t know how to make such an attempt. How is it received?” He said he replied. With this statement, Governor B. Nazım Bey said what Mustafa Kemal Pasha said when he was the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group,
The negative situation of Kırşehir Governor B. Nazım Bey was personally determined by Atatürk, but he was not dismissed immediately because his retirement was approaching. By showing mercy on this matter, Atatürk made B. Nazım Bey’s appointment to the Governorship of Ordu, filled the time necessary for his retirement here, and made him retire. Governor Bekir Sami Bey had the roads closed with snow cleared and enabled the delegation to reach Yozgat easily.
ATATÜRK’S DISCUSSION AT THE KIRŞEHİR YOUTH ASSOCIATION (*)
(24.XII.1919) (**) (On his first visit from Sivas to Ankara)
Our nation has not yet put the idea of organization in their minds. It usually leaves it to the government. This is a morality that our nation has always followed. However, time, hadith and experience have shown that the nation itself needs to be specialized and reflective. No matter what shape and quality it is, it is necessary not to abandon it, and if it does, today’s result will be achieved.
If we turn our gaze to history, the nation has begun to descend from its degree of domination. But think about it! If every member of our nation had been raised in a reflective and special way, this would certainly not have happened. Those who have undertaken the administration of the country and the nation will have made a mistake in their ijtihad, but the nation has become confused as a result of all these mistakes.
Following the armistice, our nation was said with regret, its destiny was in a state of permissiveness, the enemies who were willing to annihilate our existence were inflicting bitter blows, our nation was ready to disintegrate. It is thanks to him that some circumstances have brought our nation, which is of great value, to vigilance and intimacy. From place to place, our nation began to seek and find one another. As a result, the organization came into being. Ecanip, who was trying to destroy the independence of our state, did not think that such a spirit would be manifested in our nation. They thought that the people living here consisted of insensitive creatures. The existence of a nation was not taken into account in the decision of “Such a nation can not survive”, and they did not give importance to our nation’s oppression from time to time as a result of hadith and strife. The decision that these unimportant parts wanted to defend and the decision they made and the point-i principle accepted by the whole nation; The cause and will of the nationalist nationality is the dominance of the nationality.
And that is the spirit of this organization. When he started to expand the organization for this purpose, the ecanip’s gaze began to turn his attention to Turkey, he could not believe the original nature of it; sent various officials, delegations; They began to explore a sense of life in us and to examine it with close contact, and therefore they realized that it is not a sluggish nation, a nation that has proven its dominance six hundred years and before, and has been a master, is not a captive nation as they imagined. Therefore, the ecanip must be completely convinced that: Turkey and the nation living in Turkey have an effective presence among all the nations of the world on their own, this cannot be isolated. Alhamdulillah, the issue of the independence of our state and nation is far from being discussed. Respect for our independence has come true in every way. This is not enough for us,
(*) This Speech A. Ü. It has been accepted as an Official Document by the Turkish Revolution History Institute.
(**) This speech was published in Kırşehir Newspaper dated 30.08.1936.
In order to live independently, we need the supply of a prosperous homeland. There is a border we have drawn, we will not leave this border in the hands of ecanib, our security is very strong.
This organization is still only a form, today and tomorrow we cannot look at it as a form, and in order to give it a spirit, it is necessary to engage in the organization in order to develop the minds of each individual nation, and to protect themselves from the attacks and encroachments that will occur in the destinies of the general public.
Our ideas about the unity of the homeland are short, and we are saddened by the harm that will occur to our other citizens. The whole nation should be made into one body. As in every nation, entrepreneurs start a business in us, and lastly, it spreads to the individual and upwards. In a short time, it is the task of the intellectuals to be able to direct the direction to the truth in a short time. The duties of the intellectuals are enormous. There is no nation that can think without relying on moral principles. If our intellectuals give their ideas of homeland and nation, but provide the horse, which is necessary for their protection against rival nations, they will fulfill their duties in a more vigorous manner.
The Text of the Speech Made by Habip Arıöz in Front of the Government House when Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Kırşehir on October 17, 1924, Our
Gazi Pasha, the apple of the eye of the noble Turkish Nation! While dreaming of capturing the Turkish nation forever, it is the aim of saving the Turkish nation from captivity and death, while dreaming of destroying this cowardly homeland that has been living in the blood of the Turks for centuries, posing as the shadow of Allah, and raising the great Kemals of our great nation together with our enemies. You passed through our city three years ago and lit a light of salvation and hope in our sad hearts at that time!
It wasn’t long before: With your determined, heroic and extraordinary power for six centuries, you have achieved a glorious victory as vast and vast as the seas in the history of the world, with endless thanks and appreciation of our nation and the entire Islamic world.
The people of Kırşehir, whose hearts have been beating with enthusiasm and enthusiasm for years, consider themselves happy and happy because we have the honor of greeting our Gazi President, who has shown us bright goals in the way of innovation and progress that has brought the Turkish nation to the high position it deserves.
Here, expressing the feelings of our great nation, I say: We, the people of Kırşehir, have gathered around the principles that our esteemed President Pasha saved with his savior sword and determined with his powerful pen. We will walk with you in the strong and bright lights of our young and solid Republic, on the true path we have opened to see our sacred purpose fulfilled and reach the final goal. There is no power that can turn us from this path of truth. We will fearlessly overcome any obstacle that comes our way. The iron fist of our nation: It is enough to put out every hellfire as it breaks the chains of oppression, bondage, independence and ignorance.
We Turks are the true protectors and owners of the new and powerful republic. This is our national and sacred thought. We will not hesitate to water the sapling of the Republic with our blood, if necessary. Long live the Turkish Republic, long live the Turkish Nation, long live our Great Gazi Pasha!